The Risk of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Infections from Food Industry

Terkuran M., Turhan E. U. , ERGİNKAYA Z.

HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES, pp.513-535, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/978-3-030-24903-8_18
  • Page Numbers: pp.513-535


Several works of literature research for the contribution of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci (ARE) and, especially Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) which entered into the food chain has gained importance with the increasing significance of VREs in hospital infections. Various studies conducted in Europe, United States of America (USA) and the Middle East were evaluated in terms of prevalence, epidemiology and risk factors of foodborne enterococci in VRE infections. VRE epidemiology has shown some distinctions in Europe and USA. VRE was generally isolated from animals in Europe, which was connected to the extensive/massive use of "avoparcin" as a growth promoter in animal feed in the agriculture sector. Animals fed with this feed act as reservoirs of transferable vanA type resistance. On the other hand, since "avoparcin" was not used in the USA, VRE could not be isolated in animals and healthy humans. However, hospital-acquired VRE infections are more showed in the USA than in European countries. According to numerous studies, since enterococci are used as starter culture and probiotic culture, they have no relationship genetically with the strains which include vancomycin/resistant to antibiotic/or having resistance and virulence genes. In this chapter, important features of enterococci, the role of food chain for ARE especially, VRE infections in community including strategies for future solutions about the problem are summarised.