Elucidation of hulling-induced changes in the aroma and aroma-active compounds of cv. Uzun pistachio (Pistacia vera)

Sonmezdag A. S. , Kelebek H., SELLİ S.

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, vol.99, no.10, pp.4702-4711, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 99 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jsfa.9711
  • Page Numbers: pp.4702-4711


BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to define the effects of the hulling process on the aroma and aroma-active composition of cv. Uzun pistachio. Four different hulling processes, namely wet, wet-dry, dry-dry and brine, were applied. In addition, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), simultaneous distillation/extraction (SDE) and purge and trap (P&T) extraction methods were also tested to obtain the best representative aroma extract. RESULTS The results revealed that the dry-dry hulling method was the most prominent according to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, and this was especially the case with terpene compounds. The method increased the content of terpenes, pyrazines and total aroma compounds. By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), a total of 18 compounds were detected, of which 11 were identified for the first time in the fruit of pistachio. 2,3-Dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine were the compounds that had the highest flavour dilution factors. CONCLUSION In general, the results of the present research indicated that the hulling method highly affected the overall aroma structure of pistachios. The dry-dry hulling method is therefore suggested to manufacturers to obtain better pistachios with rich and high-quality aroma. (c) 2019 Society of Chemical Industry