The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia campestris from Algeria and its antifungal activity against 10 filamentous fungal strains were investigated. The A. campestris essential oil was obtained in a yield of 0.71% (v/w). The major constituents of the oil were a-pinene (18.65%), beta-pinene (16.78%), beta-myrcene (17.34%), and germacrene D (10.34%). Our study showed that A. campestris essential oil was a potent antifungal agent against some pathogenic fungal species. Fusarium graminearum was the most sensitive strain to A. campestris essential oil with minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration values of 1.25 mu L/mL (v/v). The essential oil also exhibited a strong fungicidal activity against the tested fungi, except for Penicillium citrinum, P. viridicatum, and Aspergillus niger (MFC > 20 mu L/mL). Our findings suggested the application of A. campestris essential oil as a biofungicide in order to reduce the dependence on synthetic fungicides and ensure food safety and quality.