Aroma, key aroma compounds, and their odor activity values of fresh and roasted P. terebinthus fruits were studied. Aroma compounds were extracted by the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique and analyzed by GC-MS-Olfactometry for the first time. A total of 64 different aroma compounds were detected (57 in fresh and 62 in roasted samples), including terpenes (34), acids (8), aldehydes (4), ketones (4), pyrazines (5), alcohols (5), pyrrole (1), furan (1), lactone (1) and ester (1). Terpenes were the predominant group followed by acids. Aroma profiles of both samples were quite analogous. Nonetheless, pinocarvone and dodecanoic acid were detected only in fresh fruits, while pyrazine class, 5-methylfurfural and gamma-butyrolactone were emerged only in roasted fruits. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied for the first time and revealed 31 key aroma compounds. Among them, the most powerful key aroma compounds with the greatest FD factors were alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene.