In this experimental study, effects of the traditional and no-tillage systems on grain yield, energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were compared in winter wheat production in Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The CO2 emissions associated with direct fuel and lubricant oil consumptions have estimated according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach. The fuel consumptions per hectare were determined as 50.96 L and 13.1 L under traditional and no-tillage systems, respectively. The use of traditional system released 145.57 kgCO2 per hectare, while the no-tillage system released only 37.42 kgCO2 per hectare. Under traditional tillage system the plowing (79.3 kgCO2/ha) had a great influence on total CO2 emissions, accounting for 54.5 % of total CO2 emissions. The grain yield (6017 kg/ha) under no-tillage system was 796 kg per hectare lower than that of traditional tillage system. The specific fuel consumptions (SFC) were 7.78 L/t and 2.26 L/t under traditional and no tillage systems, respectively. While 1 liter fuel was consumed to produce 441.83 kg grain under traditional tillage system, 128.6 kg grain was obtained per L fossil fuel consumed under the no-tillage system. Compared to traditional tillage system, 5.52 L less fossil fuel in the other word 204 MJ less fossil energy was consumed to produce per ton of grain wheat. Under no-tillage system to produce per ton grain wheat 243.6% less CO2 was released during tillage and sowing practices compared to traditional tillage system.