The antimicrobial effect of grapefruit peel essential oil and its nanoemulsion on fish spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens

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ÖZOĞUL Y., ÖZOĞUL F., Kulawik P.

LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.136, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 136
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110362
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Grapefruit peel, Nanoemulsion, Essential oil, Food-borne pathogens, Fish spoilage bacteria, Antimicrobial, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, CONSTITUENTS, EXTRACTION, STABILITY, PARADISI, QUALITY, DESIGN
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


In the study, improvement in antibacterial properties of grapefruit peel essential oil after the nanoemulsification process was investigated. The essential oil composition was characterized using GC-MS, with D-Limonene being the main identified compound (82.86%). The antibacterial properties against common food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella Paratyphi A) as well as 6 fish-spoilage bacteria isolated from 4 spoiled fish species: mackerel, sardine, anchovy and rainbow trout, have been evaluated using paper disc diffusion, MIC and MBC methods. The grapefruit peel essential oil showed bacteriostatic properties against the majority of tested bacterial strains, however, only the growth of Salmonella parathypi A, Vibrio vulnificus and Seratialique faciens was inhibited by the essential oil in the concentration up to 25 mg/mL. Incorporation of essential oil into the nanoemulsion system resulted in increased bacteriostatic potency when the oil concentration in the nanoemulsion were considered, however, no bactericidal effect was observed, which was probably due to too low concentration of essential oil in the nanoemulsion system. The improvement in the nanoemulsion preparation method and formulation should be investigated to further improve its antibacterial properties.