The effects of season and gender on the proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of the most widespread pufferfish species in the Mediterranean Sea (Lagocephalus sceleratus,Lagocephalus spadiceus,Lagocephalus suezensisandTorquigener flavimaculosus) caught in Mersin Bay, in the north-eastern Mediterranean during four seasons were investigated. The results showed that the crude protein, lipid, moisture and ash level in pufferfish were in the range of 18.7%-21.7%, 0.61%-1.93%, 76.1%-78.6% and 1.08%-1.87%, respectively. All of the pufferfish had significant levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). However, the consumption ofL. sceleratus,L. suezensisandT. flavimaculosusmay be risky due to the possibility of having tetrodotoxin in their muscles. Nevertheless,L. spadiceusis a pufferfish species that is popularly consumed in East Asian countries, and is of nutritional interest and commercial potential in the Mediterranean region as well so its proximate composition and fatty acid profile are of interest.