Deltamethrin, is a commonly used pyrethroid pesticide. Vitamin E is a antioxidant that plays an important role in protecting cells against toxicity by inactivating free radicals generated following pesticides exposure. Therefore, it was evaluated whether deltamethrin induced histopathological changes and nuclear abnormalities using micronucleus test in Oreochromis niloticus, and the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin inducing adverse effects in O. niloticus were investigated. Fish was fed with no pesticide + control diet, no pesticide + vitamin E-supplemented diet, 1.45 mu g/l deltamethrin + control diet, 1.45 mu g/l deltamethrin + vitamin E-supplemented diet for 30 days. Pesticide and diet quality made an impact on histopathological lesions. In treatments of deltamethrin, group fed with control diet showed much greater damage in comparison with group fed with vitamin E supplemented diet. Vitamin E decreased some histopathological changes induced by deltamethrin, but did not confer complete protection. Deltamethrin treatment has been shown to results in a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus. However, coadministration of deltamethrin and vitamin E showed decrease in the frequency of micronucleus as compared to deltamethrin treated fish. Our results indicate that, the MN assay and histopathology can be used as bioassays for monitoring pollution in aquatic medium. On the other hand, it was observed that vitamin E decreased the genotoxicity and histopathological changes induced by deltamethrin. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.