The effects of deltamethrin on the histology of Oreochromis niloticus testis and ovary and the protective effect of vitamin E supplementation were investigated. The fish were divided into four groups, i.e. a control group, a vitamin-E-treated group, a deltamethrin-treated group and a vitamin E+deltamethrin-treated group. In the control and vitamin-E-treated groups, the ovaries and testes were normal at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. In the deltamethrin-treated group, deformed oocytes, atretic oocytes, melanomacrophage centers, and focal necrotic areas were noted in the ovaries. Deltamethrin also caused cell necrosis, nuclear pycnosis, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells, decreasing spermatozoa within the lumen of tubule, decreasing number of spermatocyte cells, hypertrophy and degeneration of spermatogonia cells, and increasing number of macrophages in testis. Vitamin E decreased some histopathological changes induced by deltamethrin, but did not confer complete protection.