The antimicrobial effects of olive by-products (olive leaf extract, olive cake, and black water) on foodborne pathogens and fish spoilage bacteria isolated from anchovy, mackerel, and sardine were investigated. Total polyphenol contents in olive by-products were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and their chemical composition was also evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of olive by-product were performed using the broth microdilution method. Their impact on bacterial growth and biogenic amine production were also monitored in anchovy infusion decarboxylase broth. The total phenol content of olive cake and black water were 14.9 and 20.9 mg gallic acid/g extract, respectively. The major compounds were ethyl oleate (52.3%) and squalene (22.8%) in olive cake and palmitic acid (12.2%), phenanthrene (11.9%), and linoleic acid (11.4%) in olive leaf, while black water consisted of 51.1% squalene and 17.5% oleic acid ethyl ester. The minimum inhibitory concentration of olive leaf ranged from 0.78 to 25 mg/mL. Bacterial strains were more sensitive to olive leaf than other olive by-products. Bacterial load in anchovy infusion decarboxylase broth did not always correlate well with biogenic amine production. The effect of olive leaf, olive cake, and black water on biogenic amine accumulation varied depending on specific bacterial strains and biogenic amine. Olive cake and olive leaf generally had a stronger effect on reducing histamine accumulation by bacteria. Therefore, the results showed the potential effect of olive by-products in preventing or reducing the accumulation of histamine, which may beneficially affect human health.