Geochemistry and tectonic significance of ophiolites along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in northeastern Anatolia


7th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology, Adana, Turkey, 18 - 22 October 2010, vol.372, pp.75-105 identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 372
  • Doi Number: 10.1144/sp372.7
  • City: Adana
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.75-105


The Ankara-Erzincan suture zone includes large bodies of ophiolite and ophiolitic melange in northeastern Anatolia. The ophiolitic bodies are (1) Refahiye (Erzincan), (2) Sahvelet (Erzurum), (3) Karadag. (Erzurum) and (4) Kirdag. (Erzurum). The ophiolite-related units include well-preserved sections of oceanic lithospheric and accretionary melanges with local blueschist assemblages. The ophiolite-related units in NE Anatolia are unconformably overlain by Campanian-Maastrichtian-aged sediments that were later imbricated with the ophiolitic rocks. Geochemical data for the individual ophiolite sections indicate a tholeiitic composition, depletion in Nb, enrichment in large ion lithophile elements, parallel to slightly depleted high field strength element patterns (compared with normal-mid ocean ridge basalt), and slightly light rare earth element-depleted to parallel rare earth element trends. These features suggest progressive source depletion towards island arc tholeiites and finally boninites. A fore-arc setting is proposed for the generation of the ophiolites. In contrast, the volcanic rocks from the melange units exhibit tholeiitic to alkaline compositions and either depletion or enrichment of rare earth element and high field strength elements. Seamount-type alkaline and subduction-related tholeiitic basaltic rocks were apparently juxtaposed during subduction/accretion. Models involving either a single north-dipping subduction zone or two north-dipping subduction zones may be applicable. Both models involve the generation of supra-subduction zone-type ophiolites in a forearc setting, an accretionary prism (with blueschists) and a volcanic arc during the Late Cretaceous. The ophiolites, ophiolitic melange and related blueschists were emplaced either northwards onto the Pontide margin or southwards over the passive margin of the Tauride platform.