The paper presents the results of the first molecular phylogenetic assessment of ITS rDNA sequences of members of the family Boletaceae in Turkey. The still little-known species Neoboletus xanthopus and Rubroboletus demonensis are discussed based on Turkish records, which are second after their original description. Data suggest that N. xanthopus may be much more variable than currently known, especially what concerns the perceived distinguishing characters from N. erythropus. In addition, first collections of Rubroboletus lupinus s. l. in Turkey are also studied, showing some genetic distinction, seemingly related to the recently communicated from adjacent countries in the Eastern Mediterranean area. An updated key for identification of Turkish and extralimital European boletes from the former Boletus s. l. is included, based on macroscopic and micromorphological characters.