Hyena disease which was first reported in France in 1975 is considered as a disorder of skeletal development, especially localized in the pelvic limbs of young cattle. The hind limbs of the cattle shortened in this deformity and led the animal to have an appearance resembling that of a hyena in side view. The cause was unknown until the end of the 1990s and several etiological hypotheses were suggested. Experimental studies on calves demonstrated that the main cause of hyena disease is hypervitaminosis A and the deformity is similar to physeal obliteration of children due to overdoses of vitamin A. In this paper by reviewing the cases of hyena disease reported from different countries and experimental studies on calves, we draw attention to the relationship between hypervitaminosis A and premature closure of epiphyseal growth plates and the danger of uncontrolled vitamin A applications in calves.