DUSG is a useful diagnostic tool for the follow- up of renal transplant recipients. The measurement of intrarenal arterial RI by DUSG has been proven to predict short-term AF. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of DUSG performed during the early after RTx on long-term AF. Seventy patients were enrolled into study. DUSG was performed at third and seventh days after RTx. Patients were divided into two groups according to rate of recovery of graft function as patients with normal graft function and abnormal graft function. Although the RI values were correlated with the AF early after transplantation, they were not correlated with long-term AF. However, the rate of recovery of graft function at early period after RTx was correlated with creatinine level at first year and with glomerular filtration rate at first year and last visit. Although the RI has no predictive value for long-term AF, the rate of recovery of graft function at early post-transplantation period has predictive value for long-term AF; patients with higher RI values early after RTx should be followed carefully for the development of chronic allograft injury.