Context: Uterine leiomyomata are common tumors that cause irregular uterine bleeding and pregnancy loss and depend on estrogen for growth. Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Aromatase expression is regulated via alternatively used promoters in the placenta (I.1 and I.2a), fat (I.4, I.3, and II), bone (I.6), and gonads (II). A prostaglandin E-2/cAMP-dependent pathway regulates coordinately the proximal promoters I.3/II, whereas glucocorticoids and cytokines regulate the distal promoter I.4. Use of each promoter gives rise to a population of aromatase mRNA species with unique 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs). Uterine leiomyoma tissue, but not normal myometrium, overexpresses aromatase leading to estrogen-stimulated cell proliferation. Aromatase inhibitor treatment shrank uterine leiomyomata in a few women.