Combination of Amphotericin B and Flucytosine against Neurotropic Species of Melanized Fungi Causing Primary Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis

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DENG S., PAN W., LIAO W., DE HOOG G. S. , VAN DEN ENDE A. H. G. G. , VITALE R. G. , ...More

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, vol.60, no.4, pp.2346-2351, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1128/aac.02526-15
  • Page Numbers: pp.2346-2351


Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis is a fatal fungal infection due mainly to the neurotropic melanized fungi Cladophialophora bantiana, Rhinocladiella mackenziei, and Exophiala dermatitidis. Despite the combination of surgery with antifungal treatment, the prognosis continues to be poor, with mortality rates ranging from 50 to 70%. Therefore, a search for a more-appropriate therapeutic approach is urgently needed. Our in vitro studies showed that with the combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine against these species, the median fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices for strains ranged from 0.25 to 0.38, indicating synergy. By use of Bliss independence analysis, a significant degree of synergy was confirmed for all strains, with the sum Delta E ranging from 90.2 to 698.61%. No antagonism was observed. These results indicate that amphotericin B, in combination with flucytosine, may have a role in the treatment of primary cerebral infections caused by melanized fungi belonging to the order Chaetothyriales. Further in vivo studies and clinical investigations to elucidate and confirm these observations are warranted.