Fermented dairy products are the good source of different species of live lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are beneficial microbes well characterized for their health-promoting potential. Traditionally, dietary intake of fermented dairy foods has been related to different health-promoting benefits including antimicrobial activity and modulation of the immune system, among others. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests a contribution of dairy LAB in the prophylaxis and therapy of non-communicable diseases. Live bacterial cells or their metabolites can directly impact physiological responses and/or act as signalling molecules mediating more complex communications. This review provides up-to-date knowledge on the interactions between LAB isolated from dairy products (dairy LAB) and human health by discussing the concept of the food-gut-health axis. In particular, some bioactivities and probiotic potentials of dairy LAB have been provided on their involvement in the gut-brain axis and non-communicable diseases mainly focusing on their potential in the treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer.