The black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), an important source for a spice and in pharmaceutical industries, is one of the most cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey. Different agricultural practices affect yield and quality in medicinal plant production. This study was carried out for two years to determine the effect of four doses of nitrogen (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) and three of phosphorus (0, 30 and 60 kg/ha) on yield and quality of black cumin in arid and base conditions of Cukurova region of Turkey. In the present study, 60 kg/ha nitrogen and 60 kg/ha phosphorus fertilizations under the base field conditions gave the highest yield and quality of black cumin. The highest values for plant height, the number of branches, the number of capsules, seed yield, thousand-seed weight, essential oil content and seed fatty oil content were 100.1 cm, 12.73 branches/plant, 22.2 capsules/plant, 1006 kg/ha, 2.35 g, 0.40% and 39.0%, respectively.