The existing literature is controversial regarding the relationship between physical fitness and intraocular pressure (IOP). Therefore, the effects of acute submaximal exercise on IOP were compared in athletes and sedentary subjects. Acute exercise increased IOP in male athletes, but had no effect in sedentary men. Also, it decreased IOP in sedentary women, but had no effect in female athletes. Sex and physical fitness both were significant factors influencing the changes in IOP due to exercise. These results suggest that acute dynamic exercise is useful to decrease IOP in sedentary women, but not in male athletes. These results may help glaucoma screeners.