About 12,000 years ago, humans began the transition from hunter-gathering to a sedentary, agriculture-based society. From its origins ill the Fertile Crescent, farming expanded throughout Europe, Asia and Africa, together with various domesticated plants and animals. Where, how and why agriculture originated is still debated. Progress has been made in Understanding plant domestication in the last few years. New insights were obtained mainly due to (I) the use of comprehensive germplasm collections covering the whole distribution area for each species; (II) the comparison of many wild and domesticated accessions for each species; (III) the identification of the wild progenitor in the wild gene pool and its comparison with domesticate descendants (IV) the use of molecular fingerprinting techniques at many loci and the access to new generation high-throughput sequencing technologies; (V) the identification and cloning of genes involved in domestication, and (VI) excavation campaigns.