Twenty-two countries surround the Mediterranean Sea and a few more experience similar climate and soil conditions. The diversity of landscapes and natural conditions has created tremendous opportunities for economic development but has increased environmental concerns too. Human-induced pressures are on the rise throughout the region. They are particularly acute on the coastal areas. There are many competing interests especially for soil and water resources and the long term sustainable development of the region is far from being achieved. This paper offers a general overview and description of major soils of the Mediterranean region, explain their extent and characteristics and offer suggestions for their use and management. We argue that due to increased anthropic pressures throughout the region, but most importantly in North Africa and the Middle East, the endorsement of long-term policies for soil protection are not a choice but a prerogative to enhance sustainable development, reach food security objectives and meet the goals of poverty alleviation. It is concluded that unless there is political will to confront these realities chances for success may be limited and the region may continue to accelerate his path towards instability with consequences for all the countries in the region.