The relationships between genotype and placental traits, parity and litter weight (LW), and factors affecting these characteristics were investigated in this study. In total, 112 ewes (Romanov crossbred and local breeds) were utilized. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical comparison, and a Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships between the variables. Significant differences in parity weight within genotype and breed have been determined. A negative correlation was revealed between placental weight (PW) and placental efficiency (r = -0.743, P < 0.01; and r = -0.732, P < 0.01). There was no relationship between litter sex and placental traits. Birth type had a significant effect on PW (P < 0.05), and significant differences within sex-birth type interactions occurred (P < 0.05). The results of the present study have shown a positive correlation between cotyledon density and placental efficiency among all genotypes and breeds that were used in the study. In conclusion, it has been determined that placental traits were affected by LW and Romanov crossbreed ewes had greater PW than local breeds. Further studies are required to investigate the relationship between parity and placental traits in sheep.