Effects of Smoking on Periimplant Health Status and IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and PGE(2) Levels in Periimplant Crevicular Fluid: A Cross-Sectional Study on Well-Maintained Implant Recall Patients


IMPLANT DENTISTRY, vol.22, no.5, pp.519-524, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/id.0b013e31829a1718
  • Title of Journal : IMPLANT DENTISTRY
  • Page Numbers: pp.519-524


Purpose:The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effects of smoking on periimplant health status and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-, and prostaglandin E2 levels in periimplant crevicular fluid (PICF) and to determine their correlation with clinical parameters in well-maintained implant recall patients.Material and Methods:A total of 60 dental implants placed in 60 patients (27 patients were smoker and 33 were nonsmoker) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, periimplant bone loss, PICF volume, and biochemical cytokine levels in PICF were determined and analyzed statistically. The correlation between PICF cytokine levels and clinical parameters were also analyzed.Results:All clinical parameters with the exception of plaque scores were significantly higher in the smoker group. Significantly increased levels of cytokines were observed in the smoker group. The correlation between the cytokine levels and clinical parameters were more marked in smokers.Conclusions:Although the implants of the smoker patients seem to be clinically healthy, the results demonstrate that the implants are relatively at risk even if in a well-maintained population.