Roasting of a Low-Grade Goethite Ore Using Horse Residue and Its Beneficiation by Magnetic Separation

Altıner M.

MINING METALLURGY & EXPLORATION, vol.37, no.4, pp.1357-1365, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s42461-020-00242-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1357-1365
  • Keywords: Goethite ore, Roasting, Horse residue, Magnetic separation, Magnetic susceptibility, REFRACTORY IRON-ORE, PHASE-TRANSFORMATION, REDUCTION, HEMATITE
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


In the present study, the use of horse residue as an alternative reducing agent in the roasting of a low-grade goethite ore containing 17.60% Fe was investigated. Additional roasting experiments were carried out with corn starch and without reducing agent for comparison. Each roasted product was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis (MH) loops analyses. The optimum roasting conditions (roasting temperature [400, 500, and 600 degrees C], reducing agent/ore ratio [0.04, 0.08, and 0.12], and roasting time [10, 20, and 30 min]) were investigated based on the Taguchi approach. The magnetic susceptibilities of the roasted sample with the addition of reducing agents were higher compared to that of the roasted sample in the absence of reducing agent. Experimental findings indicate that the horse residue can be used as the reducing agent. Finally, an iron ore concentrate assaying a Fe grade of 62.12% with a recovery of 56.93% was prepared using wet magnetic separation at a magnetic intensity of 0.5 T from the ore roasted under the following roasting conditions: roasting temperature of 500 degrees C, reducing agent/sample ratio of 0.08, and roasting time of 30 min.