Orchard management in apricots


Kaska N.

13th International Symposium on Apricot Breeding and Culture, Murcia, İspanya, 13 - 17 Haziran 2005, ss.287-289 identifier identifier

Özet

Apricot, Prunus armeniaca L., is an early-flowering stone fruit, therefore it is very sensitive to spring frosts. However, it is resistant to winter colds. Although it is safely grown in the Mediterranean Basin countries, quite a big amount of the production is in the continental climates, as in Malatya/Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan. In such places, 40-50% of the crop is destroyed frequently by frosts. As the rootstock, apricot seedlings are used mainly. It is a drought-resistant and vigorous rootstock. In recent years, 'Myro 29 C' has been used but it is very sensitive to crown-gall. Therefore, in heavy soils, 'Marianna 8/1' or 'GF-31' can be recommended. Most of the apricot varieties are self-fertile, however, there are a few varieties which need pollinators. These must be considered before establishing solid orchards. Fertilisers should be given according to leaf analysis. In Turkey, P and K fertilisers are given after the leaf fall and N in early spring. Micronutrients are given when there are deficiencies. Zinc is commonly deficient in the orchards and it can be administered by foliar sprays especially during winter dormancy. Generally, fruit thinning is not practised in early table and late drying apricots, but if the fruit set is heavy in table varieties thinning is very beneficial. Although the varieties are resistant to drought on seedling rootstocks, irrigation is strongly recommended in order to get big-sized table fruits. Against most of the pests and diseases, the control methods are known. In order to control weeds and Capnodis and to preserve winter rains in the soil, autumn and spring ploughing is recommended. Harvesting should be done with care and unripe and over-ripe fruits should not be sent to the markets.