In this study, we evaluated the effects of anti-Mullerian hormone on follicle development and oocyte quality with light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four adult female rats were divided into four groups. After estrous cycle synchronization, on the first day, control group rats were injected with 0.5 ml saline, 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) groups were injected 1 mu gr, 2 mu gr, and 5 mu gr anti-Mullerian hormone, respectively. On the third day, intracardiac blood samples were taken for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone serum level measurements. Ovaries were obtained for light and electron microscopic examinations. Secondary (antral) follicles were decreased while atretic follicles were increased in number parallel with an increased dose of anti-Mullerian hormone injection. Atresia of the follicles was demonstrated with apoptosis of granulosa cells characterized by apoptotic bodies and with paraptosis characterized by the vacuole formation in the cytoplasm, enlargement of granular endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and perinuclear cisternae in granulosa cells. Premature luteinization characterized by increased lipid droplets, mitochondria with tubular cristae, and smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of granulosa cells were detected in some growing follicles. In the anti-Mullerian hormone injected experimental groups, cystic follicles characterized by a large antrum, attenuated granulosa cell layer, and flattened granulosa cells that face the antrum were observed. Corpus luteum and stroma were similar in all groups. It was concluded that increasing doses of anti-Mullerian hormone caused increased atresia in developing follicles, premature luteinization of granulosa cells in some follicles, and cystic follicle formation in the further developing follicles.