The effects of the low-calorie artifical sweetener maltitol (E965), a sugar alcohol (Polyol), on sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus formation (MN) were investigated in human peripheral lymphocytes. Maltitol did not induce SCE at all concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL) and treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Maltitol induced CA, although not statistically significantly. Maltitol induced the frequency of MN at 24 and 48 h in a non-dose-dependent manner. In addition, maltitol did not decrease the replication index (RI) and the mitotic index (MI) at all concentrations and treatment periods. Maltitol did not alter the pH and osmolality of the medium. In conclusion, it can be concluded that maltitol has a weak genotoxic potential and it appears non-cytotoxic to human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro .