Picture books are among the primary resources that could be referred to for introducing scientific concepts to young children. However, it is known that misrepresentations in picture books could lead to misconceptions in children and make it more difficult to acquire scientific concepts. This study investigates the misrepresentation of scientific concepts in illustrations and texts in picture books. The study sample included 117 books that focused on science concepts which were analysed for illustrations and texts. The data were collected with a book review form developed by the authors and analysed by inductive content analysis. Findings indicate that the books examined contained a large number of misrepresentations. The illustrations contained more misrepresentations in comparison to the texts. These misrepresentations were largely due to the use of anthropomorphism. Results are discussed in terms of misconceptions, concept acquisition and meaningful learning by children, and will contribute to the awareness of teachers, parents and persons concerned with children's literature about misrepresentations in picture books.