The trachea and bronchus surgery is generally performed due to stenosis, traumatic injury, foreign body and tumors. Preoperative evaluation and anesthesia management are very important issues because of higher mortality and morbidity rates. Patients may be asymptomatic, but airway difficulties, hypoxia, stridor, cough, hemoptysis are common conditions in these patient population. The collaboration between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist is very substantial and necessary. Anesthetic techniques include various applications such as one lung ventilation, fiberoptic intubation, jet ventilation, and apneic oxygenation, general anesthesia with or without neuromuscular blockade. In this review, anesthesia management of the trachea and bronchus surgery is evaluated in the light of new knowledge.