This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of single-day oral treatment with itraconazole in acute vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). Vaginitis was demonstrated by both detection of yeast cells and pseudohyphae formation on microscopic examination of vaginal discharge and mycological culture as well as by the clinical signs and symptoms. Clinical and mycological examinations of the 52 patients were performed before, 1 week (short-term) and 4 weeks (long-term) after single-day oral treatment with itraconazole 200 mg b.i.d. The causative yeast fungi were: Candida albicans (76.9%), C. glabrata (9.6%), C. kefyr (9.6%) and C. krusei (3.9%), respectively. In short- and long-term examinations, clinical cure rates were found to be 61.5% and 90.4%, and mycological cure rates were 63.5% and 90.4%, respectively. Itraconazole was found to be 95.0% effective with C. albicans and 75.0% with other Candida species. It is concluded that treatment of acute VVC with itraconazole is safe and effective in the long-term.