In the Mediterranean region, much emphasis is placed on the role of fertilizers in enhancing crop production to achieve food security. Given the complex nature of phosphorus (P) reactions in soils, considerable research has dealt with fertilizer aspects related to efficient P use, but comparatively less emphasis has been given to plant variation with respect to P efficiency. In this study, selection and adaptation of P-efficient corn genotypes was seen as one possible approach to enhancing P efficiency. Thus, a greenhouse experiment with 10 corn genotypes (traditional to modern), five P application rates (0-200mgkg-1), and four field trials with three genotypes for 2 years were carried out on various calcareous soils (Vertic Torrifluvent, Vertic Calciorthid, Entic Chromoxerert, and Typic Xerofluvent). Measurements were made of root characteristics. Treatments in the field trials were five P application rates as main plots (0-68Pha-1) and three corn genotypes as subplots. Genotypes were selected for the field trials from the greenhouse experiment as efficient-responsive, efficient-nonresponsive, and inefficient-responsive. Dry-matter (DM) yield and plant P uptake by plants increased with P application rates in the greenhouse experiment. Root length and mass were considerably increased by increasing P levels. Genotypes were classified for P efficiency. The studies indicated that because corn genotypes respond to P-fertilizer application differently, this trait could be utilized to exploit native and applied P more efficiently, especially at low levels of available P and when P- fertilizer use is limited. This differential response derives from morphological, physiological, and genetic variability among the genotypes. Although genotypic efficiency is important for fertilizer management, the contribution of the efficiency is not a substitute for fertilizers, especially if high yields are required. Nevertheless, breeding for P-use efficiency should be a component of any program to improve crop yield potential.