Genetic diversity and relationships of 54 wild-grown terebinths (Pistacia terebinthus L.) were determined using 40 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers (38 in silico polymorphic SSR markers and 2 SSR markers). In silico polymorphic SSR analysis, 430 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 25 with a mean value of 11 alleles per locus. The values of polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.34 (CUPOhBa4344) to 0.91 (CUPSiBa4072) with a mean PIC value of 0.68. Genetic distances were estimated according to the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average), the Structure, and Principal Coordinates (PCoA) based clustering. The structure analysis and UPGMA clustering of the genotypes depicted two major clusters. PCoA results supported cluster analysis results. The dendrogram revealed two major clusters. Forty-two samples were obtained from the Kazankaya canyon and 12 samples from the Karanlikdere region. The two regions are 130 km apart from each other but in a dendrogram, we did not find geographical isolation. The results proved the efficiency of SSRs for genetic diversity analysis in the terebinth. Based on the results, SSRs can be applied as a trustworthy tool for the evaluation of genetic diversity in terebinth genotypes. Molecular analysis on the terebinth genotypes in this study will promote the germplasm collection and the selection of the populations in future studies on terebinths for genetic mapping, genetic diversity, germplasm characterization, and rootstock breeding.