Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) causes vessel damage and mechanism of this damage has not yet been clearly identified. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate whether vessel damage due to the CS exposure will be prevented by the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) or not which has anti-inflammatory effect in mice. For this reason, mice were grouped as controls (with and without CS) and ALA (with and without CS). The CS application continued 5 days a week for two months. At the end of two months, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and their blood and thoracic aortas were isolated. ALA Treatment increased acetylcholine relaxations. CS decreased acetylcholine relaxation. CS with ALA treatment increased acetylcholine relaxations versus just CS treatment. CS caused rising in cyclooxigenase-2 and phospholipase A2 levels. This rise is inhibited with ALA treatment. CS decreased eNOS levels. But this result was not statistically significant. Furthermore, according to electron microscopic study CS damaged both smooth muscle and endothelium. While ALA treatment prevented smooth muscle damage it didn't prevent endothelial damage. Using cigarette and CS exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our study showed that this disease.