Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we investigated genetic variation in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis using the cytochrome oxidase I genetic DNA sequence. We found 4 (17.4%) Ricettsia prowazekii and 3 (13.1%) Bartonella quintana in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis, while we did not find any Bartonella recurrentis in any of the DNA samples. We demonstrated 1.8% genetic variations in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis with Bartonella quintana. The phylogenetic tree based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that P. h. capitis in southeast Turkey are classified into two clades (clade A, clade B) and Bartonella quintana was found in only Glade B. However, we did not find any genetic variations in other DNA samples in this region. The genetic variations may be related to P. h.capitis vector of Bartonella quintana has found in this study. In addition, this study was shown that P. h. capitis do transmit Rickettsia prowazekii and Bartonella quintana to people, epidemic typhus and trench fever may emergence in Gaziantep southeast of Turkey in the future.