Lack of requisite genetic variation in cultivated species has necessitated systematic collection, documentation and evaluation of wild Cicer species for use in chickpea variety improvement programs. Cicer arietinum has very narrow genetic variation, and the use of a wild relative in chickpea breeding could provide a good opportunity for increasing the available genetic variation of cultivated chickpea. Genetic diversity and the relationship of 71 accessions, from the core area of chickpea origin and domestication (Southeastern Turkey), belonging to five wild annual species and one cultivated species (Cicer arietinum) were analysed using iPBS-retrotransposon and ISSR markers. A total of 136 scorable bands were detected using 10 ISSR primers among 71 accessions belonging to 6 species, out of which 135 were polymorphic (99.3 %), with an average of 13.5 polymorphic fragments per primer, whereas iPBS detected 130 bands with 100 % polymorphism with an average of 13.0 bands per primer. C. echinospermum and C. pinnatifidum were the most diverse among species, whereas C. arietinum exhibited lower polymorphism. The average polymorphism information contents (PIC) value for both marker systems was 0.91. The clustering of the accessions and species within groups was almost similar, when iPBS and ISSR NeighborNet (NNet) planar graphs were compared. Further detailed studies are indispensable in order to collect Cicer germplasm, especially C. reticulatum, from southeastern Turkey particularly, from Karacadag Mountain for preservation, management of this species, and to study their genetic diversity at molecular level. This study also demonstrates the utility and role of iPBS-retrotransposons, a dominant and ubiquitous part of eukaryotic genomes, for diversity studies in wild chickpea and in cultivated chickpea.