This study was performed between June 17 - 20, 2009, in order to examine knowledge, behavior and the attitudes of pediatricians, who attended the 45th Turkish Congress of Pediatrics in Cappadocia, Turkey, about rational use of antibiotics and to investigate any affecting factors. This was a descriptive study that evaluated the pediatricians' theory about rational use of antibiotics. The survey sheet used in the study was developed by the researchers in light of information in the literature. The 77.3% of the participating physicians indicated that they did not resort to antibiotics when facing flu or common cold themselves. The rate that does not approve the antibiotic prophylaxis in upper or lower respiratory infections and the urinary system infections for an otherwise healthy individual is 65.6%. When prescribing antibiotics, 89.8% indicated that they would see the patient first, 78.1% indicated that they were prescribing according to patient's clinical condition, 71.1% reported that they paid attention to the indication appropriateness and 67.2% indicated that they would take culture samples for microbiological examination. With the increasing work experience, there is also increase in picking the answer that suggests "use of the third generation cephalosporins should be restricted to cases whose culture positivity had been proven" (p<0.05). Those with the answer "when prescribing antibiotics, I pay attention to the patient's clinical condition" are the highest among physicians who were employed by private sector (p<0.05). A further study is suggested at this point, aiming to find out underlying reasons. Considering that this topic, the rational use of antibiotics, is being used in various symposiums and scientific activities in recent years, this study suggests we should keep paying the same attention on this scientific matter. At least, carrying out in-service trainings is suggested. Also suggested could be conducting similar researches on the fields other than pediatrics.