A new biosensor for noninvasive determination of fetal RHD status in maternal blood of RhD negative pregnant women


PLOS ONE, vol.13, no.6, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197855
  • Title of Journal : PLOS ONE


Prenatal detection of the fetal RHD status can be useful in the management of RhD incompatibility to identify fetuses at risk of hemolytic disease. Hemolytic disease causes morbidity and mortality of the fetus in the neonatal period. The routine use of antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. This study describe the detection of fetal RhD antigens in blood of RhD negative pregnant women using a nanopolymer coated electrochemical biosensor for medical diagnosis. Cell free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was also used to genotyping fetal RHD status using multiplex real-time PCR. Twenty-six RhD negative pregnant women in different gestational ages were included in the study. RhD positive fetal antibodies detected with a developed biosensor in maternal blood of RhD negative mothers. The electrochemical measurements were performed on a PalmSens potentiostat, and corundum ceramic based screen printed gold electrode combined with the reference Ag/AgCl electrode, and the auxiliary Au/Pd (98/2%) electrode. Fetal RHD genotyping performed using fluorescence-based multiplex real-time PCR exons 5 and 7 of the RHD gene. The fetal RHD status of 26 RhD negative cases were detected 21 as RhD positive and 5 as RhD negative with electrochemical biosensor. Fetal RHD status confirmed with extracted fetal DNA in maternal plasma using multiplex real-time PCR RHD genotyping and by serological test after delivery. The new method for fetal RhD detection in early pregnancy is useful and can be carry out rapidly in clinical diagnosis. Using automated biosensors are reproducible, quick and results can be generated within a few minutes compared to noninvasive fetal RHD genotyping from maternal plasma with real-time PCR-based techniques. We suggest the biosensor techniques could become an alternative part of fetal RHD genotyping from maternal plasma as a prenatal screening in the management of RhD incompatibility.