The aim of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of composite resin cured within simulated root canals by means of light-transmitting plastic posts, glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts, and conventional light curing method. Thirty black plastic cylinders measuring 15 mm in length and 4 mm in internal diameter were divided into three groups. The composite resin was packed into simulated canals. The light-transmitting plastic posts and glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts were inserted into simulated canals and light cured for 90 seconds, The control group was light cured directly. To ensure continual change of material properties by increasing the length of material, a surface microhardness test was done 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 14 mm from the light exposure surface. The results showed a significant increase in microhardness of composite resin (depth of cure) for both light-transmitting plastic posts and glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts compared with the control group. The microhardness of composite resin was also significantly higher with light-transmitting plastic posts than glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts after 8 mm.