Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br.: (C. europaea) is a wild medicinal plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae. It is commonly used in traditional medicines for treating several diseases. The present work aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal potentials of C. europaea fractions including hydro ethanol (ET CE), n-butanol (But CE), and polyphenol (Poly CE). The chemical composition of hydroethanol, n-butanol, and polyphenol-rich fractions from C. europaea were determined using GC-MS after silylation. The anti-inflammatory effect of hydroethanol, n-butanol, and polyphenol-rich fractions was studied by carrageenan-induced paw edema. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of hydroethanol, n-butanol, and polyphenol-rich fractions against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts were assessed using the disc diffusion and micro-dilution assays. The findings of the chemical characterization affirmed the presence of interesting bioactive compounds in C. europaea fractions. The polyphenol-rich fraction was the best inhibitor of edema by75.68% after 6 h of treatment. The hydroethanol fraction was the most active against both bacteria and yeasts. This study contributes to society as it provides potential bioactive compounds in C. europaea extract, which may help in fighting nosocomial antibiotic-resistant microbes.