The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of and changes in the medicolegal childhood deaths that occurred in the provincial center of Adana, and to contribute to the establishment of a database for the development of national and international policies. The Study is a retrospective research examining the 1,110 cases in the age group 0 to 18, which were specified as medicolegal deaths in the provincial center of Adana-Turkey between the years 2000-2004. The cases were examined according to age, sex, causes of deaths, the origins and scenes of occurrence. Among all the deaths, 523 cases (47.2%) were seen in the age group of 0-6 years. Accidents account for 900 cases (81. 1%), and blunt traumas (594 cases) represent the most common cause of deaths. The share of traffic accidents in total blunt traumas was found to be 441 cases (74.2%). And 270 (24.3%) of all medicolegal deaths occured as a result of household accidents. The present study has also indicated that the home and surroundings represent the highest-risk areas. As a conclusion, setting up childhood injury prevention committees and providing training programs for parents will be effective for the prevention of childhood injuries and deaths. (c) 2005 Tohoku University Medical Press.