Layered Manufacturing of Dental Ceramics: Fracture Mechanics, Microstructure, and Elemental Composition of Lithography-Sintered Ceramic

UÇAR Y. , Meric I. A. , EKREN O.

JOURNAL OF PROSTHODONTICS-IMPLANT ESTHETIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE DENTISTRY, vol.28, no.1, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jopr.12748


Purpose To compare the fracture mechanics, microstructure, and elemental composition of lithography-based ceramic manufacturing with pressing and CAD/CAM. Materials and Methods Disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter, 1.2 mm thick) were used for mechanical testing (n = 10/group). Biaxial flexural strength of three groups (In-Ceram alumina [ICA], lithography-based alumina, ZirkonZahn) were determined using the "piston on 3-ball" technique as suggested in test Standard ISO-6872. Vickers hardness test was performed. Fracture toughness was calculated using fractography. Results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunnett T3 (alpha = 0.05). Weibull analysis was conducted. Polished and fracture surface characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used for elemental analysis. Results Biaxial flexural strength of ICA, LCM alumina (LCMA), and ZirkonZahn were 147 +/- 43 MPa, 490 +/- 44 MPa, and 709 +/- 94 MPa, respectively, and were statistically different (P <= 0.05). The Vickers hardness number of ICA was 850 +/- 41, whereas hardness values for LCMA and ZirkonZahn were 1581 +/- 144 and 1249 +/- 57, respectively, and were statistically different (P <= 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found between fracture toughness of ICA (2 +/- 0.4 MPa m(1/2)), LCMA (6.5 +/- 1.5 MPa.m(1/2)), and ZirkonZahn (7.7 +/- 1 MPa.m(1/2)) (P <= 0.05). Weibull modulus was highest for LCMA (m = 11.43) followed by ZirkonZahn (m = 8.16) and ICA (m = 5.21). Unlike LCMA and ZirkonZahn groups, a homogeneous microstructure was not observed for ICA. EDS results supported the SEM images. Conclusions Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that LCM seems to be a promising technique for final ceramic object manufacturing in dental applications. Both the manufacturing method and the material used should be improved.