Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotrophic and lymphotrophic virus and is a global health problem. Cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer are the most common complications of HCV. Association between HCV and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) has been shown in epidemiological studies in the last 20 years. High prevalence of HCV infection among patients with NHL has been reported in the early 1990s by Ferri in Italy and this association has been confirmed in later studies. Geographically, HCV related NHL is highly variable and chronic rather than cleared HCV infection is required for lymphomagenesis. Although anti-HCV antibody test is the most commonly used technique in epidemiological studies, HCV-RNA is more useful test to detect the association between HCV and NHL. The optimal management of HCV related NHL is not clear. However, anti-viral treatment may be sufficient for cases with low grade and/or asymptomatic lymphomas, while immuno-chemotherapy is necessary, in spite of probable hepatic toxicity, in cases with high grade lymphomas. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.