The purpose of this survey is to identify the direct and indirect factors affecting the PISA 2012 mathematical literacy. This research has been conducted in relational screening model. All of the 4848 students included in Turkey sample took part in this survey. Learning mathematics, mathematics experiences and problem solving experiences mediation variables consisting of the 17 indexes and gender, economic, social and cultural status and time allocated for learning mathematics independent variables included for analysis. The significance of the indirect influences in the mediation models were tested by using Sobel, Aroian and Goodman tests. Gender, economic, social and cultural status index and time allocated for learning mathematics independent variables have a significant influence on mathematical literacy. The independent variables explain 11 mediation variables in a significant way. Seven indexes from learning mathematics mediation variable, 4 indexes from mathematics experiences variable and 2 indexes from problem solving mediation variable explain the values in mathematical literacy in a significant manner. The mediation variable explaining the mathematical literacy at the maximum level is mathematics self-efficacy. The significance of the mediation effects were tested by using Sobel, Aroian and Goodman tests. According to the test results, 10 index values out of 17 index values are seen to have a mediator effect.