Genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion(I)/deletion(D) polymorphism is one of the genetic factor found to be related with CAD. We investigated the association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and the presence of CAD. Threehundred and seven patients (187 males and 120 females, aged between 3580, mean 54.3 +/- 9.8 years) who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were included in the study. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 307, 176 had CAD. The most frequently observed genotype in all subjects was ID (47.9%). However, in patients with CAD the frequency of 11 genotype was lower whereas DD genotype was higher compared to the controls (p < 0.05). The number of D allele carrying subjects were also higher (p < 0.05) in CAD patients. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the ACE D allele is an independent risk factor (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.01-2.18, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene (carrying D allele) is an independent risk factor for CAD in the studied Turkish population.