We investigated the possible impact of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 936 C/T gene polymorphism on kidney graft outcome. DNA samples of 290 first deceased donor kidney graft recipients with well-functioning grafts and no rejection treatment during the first transplant year (WFG), 265 recipients with graft failure within the first transplant year (F), and 187 healthy control subjects were tested using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Although VEGF 936 CT genotype and T allele carrier frequencies in 555 kidney graft recipients did not differ significantly from frequencies observed in healthy control subjects, significantly higher frequencies were found in WFG patients (CT: 19.0%, T: 20.7%) than in F patients (CT: 11.7%, p = 0.019; T: 12.8%, p = 0.017, respectively). The VEGF 936 CT genotype and T allele appear to be associated with good outcome in renal transplantation and, if confirmed, might be helpful for the pretransplant identification of recipients with low risk of graft rejection. (c) 2007 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.