As part of a project to study the possible impact of environmental change on health in southeastern Turkey, we evaluated sandfly species diversity, abundance, and habitat associations in an urban area where cutaneous leishmaniasis was undergoing epidemic re-emergence. Houses and caves in and around the city of Sanliurfa, Turkey, were sampled using mechanical aspirators, sticky papers, and CDC light traps. Of 1,649 sandflies captured, including 6 Phlebotomus and 1 Sergentomyia species, nearly all were P. papatasi (Scopoli) (967) or P. sergenti Parrot (674). Sandflies were active during June-September (hot dry season), but not during January (cool rainy season). Resting phlebotomines were abundant inside houses. Houses sampled in 3 neighborhoods with a high cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence (9-65 cases per 1,000 population) had >10 times more flies than at a comparison site where few cases (0.2 per 1,000) have been reported. Results indicated that P. sergenti or P. papatasi were the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis during this outbreak and that control of these sandflies may eliminate transmission.