<p>Geochemistry and origin of bituminous samples of Kuriki Hoyuk (SE Turkey) from 4000 BCE to 200 CE: Comparison with Kavusan Hoyuk, Hakemi Use and Salat Tepe</p>

Connan J., GENÇ E. , KAVAK O., Engel M. H. , Zumberge A.

JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE-REPORTS, vol.41, 2022 (Journal Indexed in AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 41
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2022.103348
  • Keywords: Kuriki Hoyuk, Salat Tepe, <p>Kavusan Hoyuk</p>, Hakemi Use, Archaeological bitumen, Composition, Source, Oil seeps, Biomarkers, Steranes, Terpanes, Carbon isotopes, Saturates, Aromatics, Resins, Asphaltenes, Mineral composition, MOLECULAR ARCHAEOLOGY, ISOTOPE ANALYSES, BITUMEN, ARTIFACTS, PETROLEUM, PATTERNS, EXCHANGE, TRADE, OILS, AD


Twelve samples of organic mixtures collected from floors and potsherds in different areas of Kuriki Hoyuk (SE Turkey) were analyzed by geochemical techniques to identify bitumens and try to locate their sources. Oil seeps from the region (Gercus, Badzivan, Zengen, Kerbent, Kayatepe, Eruh) and some other samples characterized later as asphaltites (Kumcati, Anittepe, Silip), were compared to the archaeological mixtures. To trace the source of bitumen, stable carbon isotope values of chromatographic fractions and mass fragmentograms of steranes and terpanes were acquired on both archaeological mixtures and oil seeps used as references. Bitumen was recognized in all samples and the Kerbent oil seep is the most likely source of bitumen at Kuriki Hoyuk. This source was used from 4000 BCE to 200 CE. In contrast, Eruh appears to be the likely source for the other archaeological sites of the neighbourhood namely: Kavusan Hoyuk, Salat Tepe and Hakemi Use. The mineral composition of archaeological samples shows that the mixtures used at Kuriki Hoyuk are similar to those observed elsewhere in many archaeological bitumens from other localities.