Transient osteoporosis of the hip is often seen in middle-aged men and in women during the third trimester of pregnancy and is characterized by acute, spontaneous hip pain. In suspected cases magnetic resonance imaging shows bone marrow edema within 48 hours from the onset of pain. Transient osteoporosis is a diagnosis of exclusion and differential diagnosis with other diseases presented with hip pain and bone marrow edema should be considered. Although it is a self limiting condition it must be kept in mind that it may migrate and involve other joints in the lower extremities like knee, ankle and contralateral hip. The cornerstone of treatment is joint protection and limited weight bearing and antiresorptive medication may be of benefit. This review summarizes conditions defined with the terms of transient osteoporosis of the hip, migratory osteoporosis, pregnancy induced osteoporosis and transient bone marrow edema syndrome. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009; 55 Suppl 1: 41-5.