Turkey has limited petroleum reserves which causes the country to become a foreign dependent in respect to energy. As a result, the dependency level of Turkey on foreign fossil fuel suppliers reaches around 70%. Biodiesel, which has a more favorable combustion emission profile, relatively high flash point, and good lubrication properties, can be an effective alternative energy source. However, to provide the necessary amount of oil from agricultural products may affect food production and require a high amount of water and fertilizer. With their high oil content and high productivity rates, microalgae seems to be the best source of fuel which can replace petroleum products totally. This article introduces methods of microalgae production and discusses the potential of Turkey to pass microalgal biodiesel technology.