Objective. Cardiovascular complications due to atherosclerosis ( AS) are the major cause of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Inflammation may play an important role in the development of AS. Several studies have demonstrated an association between AS and acute-phase proteins and cytokines in the general population and in HD patients. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The aim of this study was to compare serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory indicators in HD patients according to the presence or absence of AS. Material and methods. A total of 33 HD patients were studied. AS was defined as the presence of plaques as detected by Doppler ultrasonography. The patients were subgrouped according to the presence or absence of plaques. Serum levels of IL-1, -2, -6 and -10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured. Risk factors for AS, such as age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and duration of HD, were also evaluated. Results. Patients with AS had significantly higher high sensitivity (hs)-CRP and lower IL-10 levels. Blood pressure was also elevated in patients with AS. There was an inverse correlation between CRP and IL-10 levels in patients with AS. Conclusion. Patients with AS undergoing HD had low serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and high serum levels of hs-CRP. These results may suggest that limitation of the anti-inflammatory response in atherosclerotic uremic patients is a triggering or contributory factor for AS.